Over the past several decades, neuroscientists have teased apart the various regions and networks in the brain to better understand how they contribute to normal cognitive function, but huge questions remain about consciousness and which parts of the brain can be described as the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs)—that is, the specific brain regions that allow us to experience the smell of burnt toast, the redness of a blooming rose, or the richness of our internal thoughts. Baseline firing rates were significantly greater in the CA3 of aged animals relative to the adults. This is largely due to evidence from large longitudinal studies that individuals with poorer acoustic function are at a higher risk of developing age-related cognitive decline and dementia (83, 84). E.A.B. Visual information processing and auditory thresholds were not associated with any aspect of cognition tested. In awake macaques, prefrontal cortical neurons show reduced firing rates (42), whereas temporal lobe neurons recorded in the CA3 region show increased excitability (27), but hippocampal granule cells recorded in vitro show no change in firing rate (43). From February 2001 through May 2019 colloquia were supported by a generous gift from The Dame Jillian and Dr. Arthur M. Sackler Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, & Humanities, in memory of Dame Sackler's husband, Arthur M. Sackler. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Adapted by permission from ref. Among others, 2 differences will be discussed here: 1) distinct CaBP expression patterns of auditory neurons and 2) distinct hearing ranges between rodents and macaques. (B) Boxplots of pyramidal neuron baseline firing rates recorded from the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and CA3 in adult and aged monkeys. 5 D–F) or anterior commissure. Evidence from an animal model of normal aging, Hilar interneuron vulnerability distinguishes aged rats with memory impairment, Reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity improves cognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment, Memory impairment in aged primates is associated with region-specific network dysfunction, Neurobiological bases of age-related cognitive decline in the rhesus monkey, The effects of aging on area 46 of the frontal cortex of the rhesus monkey, The effects of age on the cells in layer 1 of primate cerebral cortex, Morphological analyses of the brains of behaviorally characterized aged nonhuman primates, Preserved number of entorhinal cortex layer II neurons in aged macaque monkeys, Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers in aged rhesus monkeys, Age-related changes in prefrontal cortex of Macaca mulatta: Synaptic density, Synapses are lost during aging in the primate prefrontal cortex, Selective changes in thin spine density and morphology in monkey prefrontal cortex correlate with aging-related cognitive impairment, Effects of age on axon terminals forming axosomatic and axodendritic inhibitory synapses in prefrontal cortex, Topographical organization of the entorhinal projection to the dentate gyrus of the monkey, Preservation into old age of synaptic number and size in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in rhesus monkeys, Synaptic correlates of memory and menopause in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in rhesus monkeys, Increased action potential firing rates of layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the prefrontal cortex are significantly related to cognitive performance in aged monkeys, Neuronal basis of age-related working memory decline, Aging alters dendritic morphology, input resistance, and inhibitory signaling in dentate granule cells of the rhesus monkey, Protection of auditory receptors and neurons: Evidence for interactive damage, The Aging Auditory System, Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, Further observations on the pathology of presbycusis, Age-related changes in the response properties of cartwheel cells in rat dorsal cochlear nucleus, Age-related changes in the inhibitory response properties of dorsal cochlear nucleus output neurons: Role of inhibitory inputs, Inhibitory neurotransmission, plasticity and aging in the mammalian central auditory system, Alterations of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels in the aging Fischer 344 rat inferior colliculus, GABAA receptor binding in the aging rat inferior colliculus, Responses of young and aged rat inferior colliculus neurons to sinusoidally amplitude modulated stimuli, Reduced GABA(A) receptor-mediated tonic inhibition in aged rat auditory thalamus, Stimulus-specific adaptation in auditory thalamus of young and aged awake rats, Diminished cortical inhibition in an aging mouse model of chronic tinnitus, Hierarchical and serial processing in the spatial auditory cortical pathway is degraded by natural aging, Age-related neurochemical changes in the rhesus macaque inferior colliculus, Age-related neurochemical changes in the rhesus macaque superior olivary complex, Auditory peripheral influences on calcium binding protein immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus during aging in the C57BL/6J mouse, Age-related increases in calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus of hearing impaired C57BL/6J mice, Presbyacusis and calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus of BALB/c mice, Age-related changes in calbindin and calretinin immunoreactivity in the central auditory system of the rat, Changes in parvalbumin immunoreactivity with aging in the central auditory system of the rat, Age-related neurochemical changes in the rhesus macaque cochlear nucleus, Parvalbumin increases in the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei of aged rhesus macaques, Calcium-binding proteins in the nervous system, Viewpoint: The core and matrix of thalamic organization, Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin in the rat nervous system, Introduction to the superior olivary complex, The lateral superior olive: A functional role in sound source localization, Neural mechanisms of encoding binaural localization cues in the auditory brainstem, Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway, Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, Interaural time sensitivity in medial superior olive of cat, Microelectrode study of superior olivary nuclei, Topographic organization of the olivocochlear projections from the lateral and medial zones of the superior olivary complex. 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